New York City is the center of the philanthropy across the U.S., and the spectrum of foundational giving is diverse. However, foundations are increasing grantmaking in the larger Tri-State region, which encompasses New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut.
Nonprofits will find a range of foundation types operating, including large and professionalized institutions that are easily approached, and newer family foundations that are more difficult to access.
All the foundation profiles below are updated regularly. We also add new ones often as additional funders come on to the scene. Only paid subscribers can access these resources. (Subscribe here.)
Altman supports the economic development of the city and residents of its five boroughs. The foundation tends to favor youth/education-related organizations, as well as health, arts and culture.
The actor's foundation focuses its grantmaking in New York City and Long Island. Grants go to a wide variety of causes, including arts and culture, health, and the environment.
The Herbert Allen Foundation’s grantmaking includes support of educational and health organizations.
The philanthropic vehicle of financier Henry Arnhold emphasizes the performing arts, but also gives to education, international affairs, and health causes.
This funder restricts grantmaking to the five boroughs of New York City and awards grants in the fields of arts, human services, education, and preservation/environment.
The Avangrid Foundation provides energy sustainability, environment, art and culture, and human services grants in the Tri-State areas and other regions in which the company operates.
The Thomas and Michele Barakett Foundation’s grantmaking includes support of educational and health causes.
This is the corporate foundation of the aerospace and industrial company, Barnes Group. The foundation awards grants to Connecticut groups in the areas of education, healthcare, human services, basic needs, and the arts.
The charitable vehicle of billionaire Ron Baron and his wife Judy. It backs a wide variety of causes, but grant amounts tend to be modest.
Beker's New York City-area grantmaking focuses on educational, medical, and community organizations, often in the Jewish community. The family supports Jewish education at all levels.
The foundation of former oil man Robert Belfer and his wife gives mostly to health causes, but also supports the arts, education, and Jewish causes.
This private funder is a big supporter of causes in New Jersey in the areas of education, medicine and culture. Metropolitan New York is also a geographic area of focus. Unsolicited proposals are not accepted.
The Blau Family Foundation's grantmaking supports organizations that focus on education, health, and arts and culture across the United States.
Michael Bloomberg makes his opinions known regarding the causes he champions. Bloomberg Philanthropies supports public health, education, government innovation, environmental, and arts projects in cities.
This isn't a huge foundation, but it's a great one for K-12 public schools and arts & culture nonprofits in New York City to know about.
Richard and Susan Braddock Family Foundation’s grantmaking includes support of arts and educational institutions.
In the U.S., the BMS foundation awards grants in eight states, including New York. The foundation’s areas of funding interest include HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, health care policy, med school, and palliative care.
This funder focuses New York City grantmaking on the arts and education. The couple's largest sums fund arts and cultural institutions, particularly The Met.
The Muriel and Bert Brodsky Family Foundation invests in Jewish causes, health, human services, and education.
This family funder supports education, health, and human rights/social justice in New York City, as well as in Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. Other Blaustein philanthropies focus more exclusively on Baltimore.
The Brodsky Family Foundation invests in the arts, education, and healthcare.
The Brooklyn Community Foundation got its start with a borough-wide study to determine the greatest needs in the area. The foundation supports local youth of color through racial justice, juvenile justice, community development, and immigrant initiatives.
The philanthropic arm of the international law firm is a flexible funder of education needs in cities where it has offices, including New York City.
The Debra and Kenneth Caplan Foundation’s grantmaking supports educational and health organizations.
Carnegie gives the majority of New York-related grants through its Urban and Higher Education programs.
Carson's New York City philanthropy focuses on education reform—Carson is a proponent of the charter school model, supporting local hospitals, arts and culture, and community development.
New York area grants from the bank's charitable arm primarily fund community programs in New York City that serve at-risk and low- to middle-income populations.
The John and Margo Catsimatidis Foundation primarily funds grantmaking related to education and youth, the Greek community, and health, as well as law enforcement and veterans.
Although based in Greenwich, Connecticut, the foundation of billionaire Steve Cohen is an active New York City grantmaker. It funds children's health, education, veterans, arts and neighbors.
The Abby and David Cohen Family Foundation makes grants largely for the arts and Jewish organizations. It has also funded education, youth, policy, and health.
The couple's giving priorities include education and health, and the Colemans give large sums to a select few hospitals where they have board seats.
The Mark and Anla Cheng Kingdon Fund focuses most of its New York City grantmaking on education, and arts and culture.
The Connecticut Community Foundation supports 21 Connecticut towns in the areas of arts and culture, cradle to career, economic vitality, environment, grassroots leaders, healthy communities, older adults, Southbury, technology for organizations, and women and girls.
This community funder supports 42 communities in the eastern third of Connecticut. Topics of funding are youth, environment, animal welfare, and basic needs and rights.
This funder supports Central Connecticut in the areas of early childhood education, arts and culture, general education, economic and community development, and health and human services.
This well-established community funder supports 20 towns in Central Connecticut in the areas of arts and culture, basic needs, civic vitality, economic success, education, environment, health and wellness, and children and youth.
This funder supports a wide range of nonprofits throughout the state of New Jersey. Topics of interest include children and youth, seniors, health, education, and arts and culture.
This community foundation supports eight counties in southern New Jersey. Funding areas include community, health, social services, and youth education and enrichment.
The Conard-Davis Family Foundation’s grantmaking includes support of educational and policy institutions.
This health legacy funder is exclusively focused on Connecticut and supports programs for health coverage and access, advocacy and leadership, health and community, and the healthcare delivery system.
Financier Leon Cooperman and his wife tend to give big to a few institutions in the New York area, starting with their alma maters. But Cooperman money finds it way to many causes, particularly related to health and Jewish issues.
Ray Dalio is renown in the hedge fund business. He's been building up his foundation's assets. It has been a steady funder of multiple causes for years in both Connecticut and New York City. Its focuses include education, health, environment, and the arts.
Debs' grantmaking includes support for international policy and arts organizations.
The Ira W. DeCamp Foundation invests in community-based health care, foster care, and workforce development in New York City.
This funder supports nonprofits in Connecticut, New York, and beyond in the fields of early childhood education, education reform, grassroots community development, reproductive health.
The foundation funds a wide array of projects including those related to HIV/AIDS, cancer, arts, healthcare, media, performing arts, and education. DVF also awards grants to support public parks such as the Highline and Central Park.
The James and Judith K. Dimon Foundation’s grantmaking invests in educational and youth organizations.
The Dorsey & Whitney Foundation's grants focus on groups that contribute to the cultural, civic, educational, and general welfare of the community. It also supports legal services for the poor.
This funder supports New York City nonprofits working in the fields of aging, arts, education, and social services. It was established from the estate of music publisher Louis Dreyfus and his wife.
Bankrolled by a retired hedge fund manager and his wife, the foundation gives to many causes in New York City, though education and poverty are top priorities. It has ramped up its philanthropy in recent years.
The Edlow Family Fund’s grantmaking includes support for Jewish causes, local schools, and arts organizations.
This funder has a strong interest in arts and culture. Other local interests of the family include health and education.
This is the philanthropic vehicle of Wall Street billionaire David Einhorn and his wife Cheryl. Much of the couple's grantmaking takes place in New York City. Fostering empathy is central to the foundation's work.
The foundation of financier Steven Einhorn and his wife. Health and Jewish causes have been major priorities in recent years.
Founded by Transammonia minority owner Oliver Stanton and his wife Elizabeth, this funder supports Jewish causes, the arts, and education.
The couple's New York City giving focuses on the environment, arts and culture, and more.
The Eveillard Family Charitable Trust’s grantmaking includes support of arts and educational institutions.
This Connecticut community funder supports youth career pathways, women and girls, economic security, arts and culture, and nonprofit capacity. It accepts letters of inquiry for the spring and fall grant cycles.
The Fascitelli Family Foundation primarily funds grantmaking for education, youth, health, and the arts. It also earmarks funds for human services and the environment.
The Lori and Mark Fife Foundation’s grantmaking invests in educational and Jewish organizations.
The J.C. Flowers Foundation works with a wide range of partners to solve critical health and social problems affecting hard to reach, or “last mile,” communities. The Foundation’s global giving focuses its efforts on the cross border communities of Namibia, Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It also funds organizations that invest in people recently freed from prison.
FSF supports programs that help children of color in New York City and Washington, D.C., succeed in school. They award grants once yearly and accept unsolicited applications.
The foundation of Alan Fournier and his wife Jennifer mostly makes grants in the New Jersey area, in New York, and (to a lesser extent) other regions throughout the U.S.
Brian P. Friedman Family Foundation‘s grantmaking funds arts and Jewish organizations.
This foundation focuses primarily on education, hospitals, health associations, and Jewish causes in New York City. It has a minimal web presence.
This funder awards grants to NYC public schools and acts as a connector between the NYC Department of Education and other foundations. It prioritizes computer science and Pre-K education.
The Ganek Family Foundation’s grantmaking largely invests in education and the arts across the United States; however, it prioritizes New York City.
The Gerry Foundation’s grantmaking focuses on revitalizing Sullivan County in Upstate New York.
The Gerson Family Foundation awards grants to New York City area schools, Jewish organizations, arts institutions, and anti-poverty organizations.
The Bernard F. and Alva B. Gimbel Foundation supports scientific and educational causes, but focuses on the environment, economic development, legal services, and reproductive rights.
The couple's grantmaking in New York City involves education, health, Jewish causes and more. It's largely focused on New York City.
The Sol Goldman Charitable Foundation primarily funds grantmaking related to education, health, and Jewish causes. Other grantmaking touches human services and the arts. Other grantmaking touches human services and the arts.
Grantmaking supports the arts, Jewish organizations, and more. Apart from the city, Westchester County and Long Island are also sites of giving.
The Redlich Horwitz Foundation supports improvements to the foster care system in the state of New York.
The Janklow Foundation funds grantmaking related to the arts, education, youth, health, human services, and Jewish causes across the United States.
This funder supports well-established New York City organizations in the fields of arts, education, health, and social justice. Unsolicited proposals are not accepted.
The JCF supports Jewish learning, Jewish community outreach, seniors, and nonprofit capacity building within the state of Connecticut.
This funder mostly supports early education and child care in New York City. Across the five boroughs, it also funds some other education, health and social services efforts.
This community funder supports a 29-town region around Hartford, Connecticut, in the areas of education, health, arts and culture, community and economic development, family and social services, summer programs, and the environment.
Hecksher makes grants for arts, education, health, social services, teacher development, workforce development and recreation to organizations working with children. Hecksher supports public, private, parochial, and alternative schools.
The Helmsley Charitable Trust supports U.S. and global health initiatives, as well as education and human services causes. Place-based funding goes to Israel, New York City, and conservation.
The Joan C. and David Henle Foundation funds education, the environment, youth, health, and sports.
This is one of several charitable outfits directed by the billionaire financier and his wife. The foundation does much of its grantmaking in New York City toward education, healthcare, community development, and arts and culture.
JCF facilitates and promotes charitable giving to Jewish nonprofit organizations in New York. Most locally focused funding goes toward education and community causes.
The JP Morgan Chase Foundation has both a local and a global focus to get citizens into safe homes, back to work, and financially secure. The foundation also encourages its employees to donate and volunteer.
The Henry and Elaine Kaufman Foundation’s grantmaking invests in the arts, Jewish causes, and educational organizations.
The Kelleher Charitable Foundation largely supports Catholics causes in New York City, education, and youth.
This family foundation largely supports New Jersey and Tri-State Area nonprofits in the areas of education, human services, and arts and culture. Unsolicited letters of inquiry are accepted.
Bankrolled by New York's richest resident, the foundation is particularly active in supporting cancer research and arts institutions in the city.
The foundation of billionaire Bruce Kovner and his wife Suzie mainly supports arts and education. The couple doesn't have a long list of annual grantees and tends to give to the same outfits each year. Grants are quite sizable, however.
The couple's philanthropy is laser-focused on New York City, particularly arts and culture. The Krauses are major art collectors. Other interests include education and human services.
Kravis awards grants in New York and Connecticut to support projects in cancer research, education and human services. Doesn't give cancer research grants to individual investigators or researchers.
The Kressel Family Foundation’s grantmaking prioritizes the Jewish community.
The foundation of Wall Streeter and New York resident Aaron Sosnick supports arts and culture, education, human services, and community projects.
This investor and his wife fund education, arts and culture, New York City community development, health, and Jewish causes. They are also very involved with the New York Junior Tennis & Learning Center.
The Richard S and Karen Lefrak Charitable Foundation’s grantmaking supports the arts, cultural, and health organizations.
The Lemberg Foundation’s grantmaking invests in arts and educational institutions.
Strong interest in education and animal welfare causes, mostly in New York City, but also makes grants to groups in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Grants often fund animal shelter causes, and college tuition scholarships for low- and mid-income students.
Former Goldman Sachs Vice Chairman J. Michael Evans, via his foundation, focuses his New York City philanthropy on areas like education, youth, and human services.
The foundation of hedge fund billionaire Daniel Loeb and his wife Margaret supports health, arts, and education, among other causes. Annual giving is modest, but the couple has wide interests.
The foundation is very active in the Connecticut and New York City areas, giving to many charter schools, advocacy groups and local Connecticut public schools.
The Mai Family Foundation’s grantmaking supports policy, education, and global organizations, among others.
The philanthropic vehicle of hedge funder Donald Marron. Backs education, arts and culture, health, and more.
The foundation’s New York City grantmaking involves a range of causes, including the arts, education, and human services.
This funder supports Meriden, Connecticut and the surrounding region in the areas of health, education, literacy, after-school programs, community development, neighborhoods, and people with special needs.
The Mertz Gilmore Foundation is a well-known national and global climate change grantmaker, but it has two focus areas specific to New York City: community development and dance.
The philanthropic vehicle of hedge funder Willem Kooyker and his wife Judith-Ann Corrente. The couple has been giving for local arts and culture outfits, and also education and health.
This funder supports nonprofits in the areas of arts and culture, education, health, and quality of life in the Tri-State Area. Unsolicited grant requests are not accepted.
The Naddisy Foundation’s grantmaking largely invests in Jewish and cultural organizations.
Gives major funding for New York City arts and culture, but also gives grants to health, youth, education, human services, and NYC community causes.
This bank legacy funder supports 44 Connecticut communities in the areas of arts, community development, health and human services, youth and education, and literacy.
Focuses on arts and culture, education, human services and more. The couple behind the foundation, media mogul Si Newhouse and his wife Victoria, are major art collectors.
The New York Community Trust gives for the benefit of the city in the areas of education, arts community development, the environment. Most of the money stays in New York City.
The New York Foundation prioritizes community organizing and advocacy organizations, and all grantees share a common commitment to inspire New Yorkers to become informed and active participants in city life.
The New York Foundation for the Arts provides local artists and art organizations with cash grants, fiscal sponsorship, online resources, and professional development training. Most forms of art are considered for funding.
The New York Life Foundation focuses grantmaking on children and youth in New York City and Westchester County, New York.
This foundation is a huge New York grantmaker for most health-related issues, including quality primary care, diabetes prevention and health policy making.
This funder supports causes for anti-violence, safety, economic security, health, sexual rights, and reproductive justice that benefit women and girls in New York City.
Not to be confused with the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, this foundation awards grants to New York and Georgia-based organizations. In New York, Noble awards grants to art education, secondary education, and health causes.
The North Star Fund awards activist-led grants, rapid response grants, and donor-advised grants in New York City. The fund supports local organizations that promise to improve schools, housing conditions, healthcare, access to jobs, civil liberties, peace, freedom, and human rights.
The NCCF supports 20 towns in Northwest Connecticut in the areas of hunger, homelessness, access to the arts, women and girls, youth, and human services.
This foundation has a national reach with environmental, agriculture, and reproductive rights grants. However, it has a funding program dedicated to building an environmentally sustainable New York City. Around five of these grants are awarded each year.
A legacy funder, OceanFirst supports central and southern New Jersey through health and wellness, housing, improving quality of life, youth development and education.
The Och Foundation states that its primary areas of interest are New York and Massachusetts. However, it awards grants to New Jersey-based organizations, as well. Och likes to fund hospitals, human service and Jewish programs.
The John R. Oishei Foundation supports nonprofits in Western New York in the areas of education, self-sufficiency, stable neighborhoods, healthcare, and arts and culture.
The Ong Family Foundation, which primarily funds programs that are comprehensive, community-based and preventive in nature.
Open Society Foundations has many worldwide issues of focus, but in New York, it backs marriage equality, media transparency, and criminal justice. Open Society is known to be open-minded and outspoken.
The foundation’s grantmaking heavily involves New York City arts and culture organizations. Other interests include education, health, and Jewish causes.
As the the philanthropic vehicle of businessman Richard Parsons and his wife Laura, the Parsons Family Foundation largely prioritizes education, the arts, and more.
Hedge fund billionaire John Paulson's foundation makes a lot of grants to education and health. New York City is a priority.
This corporate bank foundation supports communities in the Tri-State area and Northeast in the fields of community development, youth development, and affordable housing.
New York is the overriding focus of Ronald O. Perelman's foundation, with grants funding the arts, healthcare, hospitals, Jewish causes and human services.
The foundation of hedge funder Bill Ackman and his wife Karen has broad interests that include global issues, but New York City, where the couple lives, is a major focus of giving. Funding areas include education, poverty, health, and Jewish community.
The philanthropic arm of the investment management firm gives “to empower people globally to reach their full potential.” Support for New York City nonprofits is at the forefront.
The PLM Foundation’s grantmaking includes support of educational and arts institutions.
This is a New York City-based foundation, especially interested in improving the lives of people with learning and attention issues. Other interests include the arts and Jewish organizations.
The philanthropic vehicle of finance billionaire Michael F. Price. Grantmaking involves education, health and biomedical research, and supporting children and youth.
The couple strongly supports the Jewish community in New York. Other interests are education and health. Philanthropy largely tracks with personal ties and the couple's board memberships.
This young foundation states three interests: youth, education and medical research. However, its grantmaking is just getting started.
The Rattner Family Foundation supports policy and global organizations, education, as well as education, among other interests.
The Ira M. Resnick Foundation invests in grantmaking for film, theater, education, mental health and global sustainability and development.
Revson awards grants in education, biomedical research, urban affairs, Jewish philanthropy and education. Apart from grantmaking in Israel, nearly all funding is focused on New York.
Hedge fund billionaire Larry Robbins is deep into education issues, but also gives to anti-poverty groups, as well as health and Jewish causes.
Robin Hood has a high profile in New York. Aside from the foundation’s major efforts toward disaster relief and emergency response, it mostly focuses on reducing poverty in the city.
The Rockefeller Brothers Fund aims to create a “sustainable urban community” through grantmaking in civic engagement, artistic expression and environmental preservation.
This Rockefeller outfit supports arts and culture, and community development and transformation. In addition to that work, the foundation also supports environmental and climate change projects.
The fund's average grant size isn't overwhelming, but it has given steadily to many New York City institutions, particularly in arts and the environment.
Susan and Elihu Rose's New York City giving involves strong support of arts and culture outfits. Also backs health, human services, education, and more.
The Edward John and Patricia Rosenwald Foundation’s grantmaking includes investments in health, education, and arts and culture organizations.
Daryl & Steven Roth Foundation's grantmaking includes support of educational and Jewish organizations.
The Steven J and Robin Rotter Family Foundation makes grants across the United State. It prioritizes Jewish causes and policy organizations, but also invests in policy, education, and youth.
This is the philanthropic vehicle of private equity billionaire Marc Rowan and his wife Carolyn. New York City grantmaking involves education, Jewish causes, health, and more.
The Rubin-Henry Family Foundation’s grantmaking includes support of educational and health causes.
The Jack & Anita Saltz Foundation’s grantmaking supports medical organizations and Jewish causes.
Samberg's three main areas of giving are education, health, and Jewish life. Many of the foundation's grantees are in the New York City area.
The couple's New York City grantmaking involves the arts, education, Jewish causes and more.
This funder supports the Connecticut counties of Hartford, Tolland, and Windham in the areas of health, human services, education, housing, and the arts.
Scherman funds arts, environment, government transparency and accountability, human rights and liberties, reproductive rights and justice, and New York communities. It also awards grants through the Katherine S. and Axel G. Rosin Fund.
The couple's giving has a New York City focus, primarily focused on Jewish causes in the city. Other interests are education, health, and human services.
Created by Bloomberg LP co-founder Thomas Secunda and his wife Cindy, this foundation is mainly focused in the greater New York area, giving to arts, education, and Jewish causes. The Secundas have been expanding their foundation's assets, along with their annual giving.
Hedge-funder David Shaw and his wife Beth appear to be ramping up their already active philanthropy. Topics include education and youth, health, Jewish causes, arts and culture.
Simbat's grantmaking prioritizes the Jewish community.
The David E. Simon and Jacqueline S. Simon Charitable Foundation funds grantmaking related to education, youth, health, Jewish causes, human services, and the arts. New York City and Indiana serve as important regions of giving.
Singer is known for his political views and giving. But he's also a philanthropist active in New York City, and in recent years, has supported education, health and several other causes.
SHELDON H. SOLOW FOUNDATION
The Sheldon H. Solow Foundation's grantmaking includes support for arts and Jewish organizations.
Named for the four-time governor of New York, Smith focuses on needy children in New York City and neighboring counties. Supports education, physical and emotional health, prenatal care, homeless pregnant mothers and children of incarcerated mothers.
The philanthropic vehicle of real estate billionaire Jerry I. Speyer and his wife Katherine. The couple have been strong supporters of arts and culture in New York City, but local grantmaking involves education, health, and more.
The Stainman Family Foundation’s grantmaking funds human services and arts organizations.
The Starr Foundation gives primarily to health and education causes. Although the foundation strongly discourages unsolicited grant proposals, it does have a medium-sized staff that makes itself accessible to grantseekers.
The Aaron and Betty Lee Stern Foundation’s grantmaking prioritizes the arts and education across the United States. However, it also funds programs benefitting youth.
This funder focuses much of its grantmaking on the arts and Jewish causes. Family members are prominent art collectors, and they've contributed some of their collection to local New York City museums.
The Summit Area Public Foundation supports Summit, New Jersey and the surrounding communities in the areas of civic and community, health, education, special needs, elderly, and arts and culture.
The Taproot Foundation provides substantial in-kind service grants of professional consulting services to nonprofit organizations in several major cities, including New York.
Bankrolled by one of America's most successful hedge fund managers, the David Tepper Charitable Foundation focuses heavily on poverty and education issues (hunger, in particular), but gives toward a few other causes, as well.
The foundation strongly supports New York City arts and cultural institutions, particularly Park Avenue Armory, which has received some $130 million through the years.
This funder supports education, employment, youth and families, and criminal justice causes in the five boroughs of New York City to end the cycle of poverty.
This funder supports New York City causes related to education, the arts, healthy food, and economic development. Unsolicited proposals are not accepted.
The couple's philanthropy has a New York focus, and backs arts and culture. The couple also supports health and human services.
The Elizabeth and Oliver Stanton Foundation’s grantmaking invests in health, Jewish and cultural organizations, as well as global humanitarian work.
The Trinity Church Wall Street has a social justice mission and awards grants to New York metropolitan area nonprofits to address racial equity and structural inequalities through neighborhood, leadership, and capacity funding.
The foundation supports young people through charter schools, charter networks, and ed reform advocacy groups, as well as literacy, anti-poverty, and scholarship programs.
The Beards, via their foundation, primarily support New York City youth, education, arts, and human services organizations.
The van Ameringen Foundation is solely focused on mental health and underserved populations in New York City and Philadelphia.
The Viola Foundation’s grantmaking provides support for the Italian-American diaspora, education and religious institutions.
The Sue and Edgar Wachenheim Foundation primarily funds grantmaking related to education and the arts. It also earmarks funds for health, human services, and Jewish organizations.
The Walentas Foundation, Ltd funds grantmaking related to the arts, education, youth, and civic development. Brooklyn, New York serves as an important region of giving.
The Joseph LeRoy and Ann C. Warner Fund supports organizations that assist children with disabilities and children in foster care through education, arts, sports, health care, family preservation, research, primary care services, and advocacy programs.
The John F. Welch Jr. Foundation primarily funds grantmaking related to education, health, poverty, health, and animals.
The trust of the late financier awards an array of grants in New York, but its current status is hard to verify.
Wunderkinder’s New York City grantmaking supports the arts, health, and social welfare organizations.
The Zegar Family Foundation awards several dozen grants each year. Although Zegar grantmaking isn’t limited to a particular geographic region, a sizeable portion of grants have been going to organizations in New York City.
The foundation, endowed with the wealth of publishing magnate Bill Ziff, has given to cultural, educational and environmental organizations and institutions in the city. The foundation's president, Ann Ziff, has an interest in music and opera.